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Jerusalem's Destiny
According to the Bible
Updated 3/16/14

Original City of David (Jerusalem) at the time of Solomon ~950 B.C., (Artist's rendering)
Original City of David at the time of Solomon, approximately 950 B.C.-- the extent of Jerusalem at that time. Solomon's Temple on Mt Moriah is in upper far right corner (Artist's rendering).
Here are some of the more prominent scriptures that speak of the destiny of Jerusalem and Israel, beginning with Isaiah's prophecy in the 8th century B.C. through the return of Jesus Christ, Son of David, as Messiah, King of Israel and the nations in glory and power and New Jerusalem at "the end of the age". I (the webmaster) have presented these scriptures as I have below, with most of them yet to be fulfilled. I do recognize that others in the Body of Christ share other opinions about the fulfillment of scriptures. Note that the Land of Canaan/Israel is usually just referred to in this article as "the Land".

This entire project began with a question in our church regarding the future of Jerusalem in God's plan.

God's Word speaks of the earthly and heavenly city of Jerusalem in over 1000 verses through the Old and New Testaments.

Jerusalem is referred to by over 30 other names in the Bible including. Salem, Moriah, Jebus, the place which the LORD your God shall choose, Zion, Mt Zion, Stronghold of Zion, City of David, Ariel, Holy Hill, Holy Mount, Bloody City, Harlot, Holy City, The City of Righteousness, The Faithful City, Throne of the LORD, the LORD our righteousness, City of the Great King, City of God, City of our God, City of the LORD, The perfection of beauty, The joy of the whole earth, the LORD is there, Great City, City of Truth, Sodom and Egypt, the place where our Lord was crucified, Beloved City. The Lord also says that she "shall be called by a new name, which the mouth of the LORD shall name." (Is. 62) In Revelation, "the city of my God which is new Jerusalem" and "the holy city, new Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband," is described in chapter 21.

The first mention of Jerusalem in the central mountains of what was called Canaan is in Gen. 14:18 when Melchizedek, king of Salem and "priest of God Most High", blessed Abraham, approximately 2000 B.C. (Salem -- related to Heb. shalom meaning peace -- was known as "Jerusalem" (Heb. Yerushalayim) by the time of Joshua around 1300 BC. Likely from Heb. yir meaning "city" and shalayim probably meaning "peace" (plural)). God later commanded Abraham to go to Mount Moriah, a hill adjacent to and slightly North of Salem where Solomon's temple would later be built, and sacrifice his only son, Isaac, to him. God spared Isaac, and there Abraham sacrificed a provided ram to God in Isaac's place. Gen. 22.

God refers in various ways to Jerusalem either directly or indirectly from Genesis to Exodus, though not by the name Jerusalem. It is first called Jerusalem in the book of Joshua, and he conquers it briefly around 1300 B.C. 300 years later, David, after becoming king of Israel, finally conquers and takes Jerusalem permanently from the Jebusites. The original Jerusalem (now called in modern-day Israel "the City of David" and by the Arabs, Silwan) is a high hill in the Judean mountains of about 15 to 20 acres surrounded by other higher hills. David makes Jerusalem the eternal capital of his / God's kingdom, and calls it the City of David. (2 Samuel 5 & 1 Chron. 11) Mt. Moriah, the hill a few hundred yards North (top right corner of painting), is the place God later revealed to David as the place of God's House. David ordered the temple of God to be built there by his son Solomon on the basis of that revelation. (1 Chron. 21,22).

From the time of Melchizedek, king/priest of Salem, through the time of David's capture of the city from the Jebusites and the building of Solomon's temple until the departure of God's glory from the city in Ezekiel (Ezek 11:22-23), Jerusalem/Moriah was God's place of dwelling. Jerusalem continues to be in the focus of God's plan from before the appearing and sacrifice of Christ/Messiah outside the city to the coming down from heaven of the New Jerusalem in Revelation (Rev. 21). Yet it (the earthly city) is the city which "kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to [her]", "How often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chicks under her wings, and ye would not!," cried out the Lord Jesus near the city before it crucified him (Mat. 23:37-39) Hence, "they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled." (Luke 21)

But let us continue with our condensed history. Solomon's reign from Jerusalem over Israel was between 900 and 800 B.C. The kingdom split between Israel in the North and Judah in the South after Solomon. Around 590 B.C. (about 400 years later) Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, conquered and eventually destroyed Jerusalem and took most of the Jews throughout the Land to Babylon as prophesied by Moses (Deut. 28, Lev. 26) and the later prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. The captivity in Babylon would last 70 years, as the LORD declared through Jeremiah, on account of the people's wickedness and rebellion against him and his laws and so that the Land should enjoy its sabbaths. But God promised that he would raise up and cause a future, Persian king by the name of Cyrus, and other subsequent kings, to issue decrees that the Jews return to their Land and rebuild Jerusalem and the temple (See Lev 26, Isa 44; 2 Chron 36 and others).

After 70 years of the captivity, Cyrus of Persia and subsequent kings issued those decrees. Beginning with the decree and command of Cyrus, king of Persia around 530 B.C., groups of the Babylonian Jewish exiles began returning to the Land and rebuilding the temple and the city (2 Chron. 36, Ezra 1) as prophesied by Isaiah, Jeremiah and others. Several groups, as recorded in the book of Ezra the high priest, then Ezra himself with a large group, and soon thereafter Nehemiah, returned to the Land to continue rebuilding. (See Ezra, Nehemiah, Haggai and Zechariah.)

The same prophets as well as others also speak of a far greater dispersion and restoration of the "outcasts of Israel" (including gentiles) from many nations and from "the four corners of the earth," far greater than the Babylonian exile. (e.g. Isaiah 11:11-16) I have quoted those prophecies and promises which refer to the first -- Babylonian -- exile and restoration and those which refer to the greater exile and restoration. In the first century, Rome enslaved, exiled and scattered the Jews throughout the Roman and other empires. The largest waves of Jews to begin returning to the Land from this dispersion began in the 1800s.

All Hebrew prophecy ultimately points toward God's promised "messiah" (meaning "anointed one") and culminates, according to the Hebrew prophets, in the appearing and universal reign of Messiah / the Anointed One in glory and power whom we believe to be Jesus Christ/Messiah, the Son of God. (Either in two consecutive reigns, first earthly and then eternally over a "new heaven and earth" or eternally over one new heaven and earth. (c.f. Dan. 2,7-9; Zech. 12-14, Mat. 24; Mark 13; Rev. 19-22 and others.)

While most of the "lost sheep of the house of Israel" do not recognize their Messiah yet, God is opening the eyes of many worldwide and in the Land and granting them saving faith in Jesus in numbers not seen since the recording of the book of Acts. Yet we know that it is only the "remnant" or "a third", who will be saved as seen in the above passages. In the meantime, Jerusalem will be "trodden down of the gentiles until the times of the gentiles be fulfilled", Lk. 21:24.

As you will see in the following scriptures, God restores his people to Jerusalem and the Land of Israel -- not for their sake, for they are a stubborn, rebellious, idolatrous, and unfaithful people -- but for his own name's sake and for the sake of his covenant and promise to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob -- To make his name known to Israel and the nations -- to fulfill the covenant he made to the fathers. Jehovah God (or Yah'weh in Hebrew) keeps his covenant and the word he gave to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses and David and to his son Jesus Christ the son of David, so that they, Israel, shall be his people and he their God. This is God's purpose for ALL who are his elect, both Jew and Gentile. Jesus (Yeshua in Hebrew), the Son of David, the Son of God, will save all who have been given to him that all might serve and worship him "and so ALL Israel shall be saved" (Rom 11:26).

Those of us belonging to "spiritual" Israel (Rom 9-11), who are Jews inwardly (Rom 2:28,29) of the seed of Abraham by faith in Jesus Christ have come unto heavenly Jerusalem which "hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God", "the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven." Earthly Jerusalem, as God deals with it and the nations, is a "shadow", an earthly representation of the spiritual, heavenly City. (Heb. 11:8-10; 12:22,23; Rev. 21-22:1-5)

For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman.
But he who was [born] of the bondwoman was born [according to] the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise.
Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which [corresponds] to bondage, which is Hagar.
For this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to
Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.
But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all. (KJV) Gal. 4:22-26

Even now we are told:

But ye are come unto mount Zion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels,
To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven. (KJV)
Heb 12:22-25

Regarding God's sovereign hand on unbelieving Israel, see Mat 23:37-39; Luke 21:24-31;1 Rom 1-3,9-11; 1 Cor 10:18; Rev 1:7. Keep in mind that the word "Israel" in the Old Testament usually refers first to the physical/covenant seed or descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, then ultimately to the spiritual/promised seed wherever they are, in the Land itself (Gen. 13:14,15; Ex. 13:5; Lev. 20:24, etc.) and those "out of every tribe, tongue, people and nation" (Rev 5:9). Ultimately the "seed" of Abraham refers to Christ/Messiah (Gal. 3:16). (As to the physical "natural" seed, there is detailed scientific research on Jewish lineage -- see Wikipedia article on Jews, genetic studies, keeping in mind that God is also able to "raise up from these stones children of Abraham".) God speaks to and of both forms of "Israel" in the Bible, ultimately all culminating in one Israel of God consisting of neither Jew nor Gentile but one "new man" in Christ (Eph 2) -- where a true Jew is one who is a Jew inwardly by circumcision of the heart (Rom 2:25-29). Paul refers to Israel in both forms in Rom. 1-3 and 9-11, ending up with one Israel of God as God continues to graft the remnant of Israel back into their own olive tree which is Christ.

John Owen, a Puritan theologian in the 1600s, mentions the restoration of the Jews to the Land and to their Messiah according to his study of the scriptures. He wrote on this at a time when such thinking regarding the Jews and the literal fulfillment of Old and New Testament scriptures under the Covenant (which ultimately includes Jerusalem) would have appeared impossible.

Owen writes,

[The Jews] shall return to their own land; they shall enjoy it for a quiet and everlasting possession, their adversaries being destroyed; they shall also be filled with the light and knowledge of the will and worship of God, so as to be a guide and blessing to the residue of the Gentiles who seek after the Lord, and perhaps, shall be entrusted with great empire and rule in the world. The most of these are foretold concerning them, not only in their own prophetic writings, but also by the divine writers of sundry books of the New Testament. But all this we say must come to pass, when the veil shall be taken from their eyes, and when they shall look on him whom they have pierced, and when they joyfully receive him whom they have sinfully rejected for so many generations....

When they shall receive, acknowledge, and believe in that Messiah who came to them so long time since, whom their fathers wickedly slew, and hanged on a tree, and whom they have since no less wickedly rejected; and when by his Spirit and grace they shall be turned from ungodliness, and shall have their eyes opened to see the mystery of the grace, wisdom and love of God in the blood of his Son; then shall they obtain mercy from the God of their forefathers, and returning again to their land, "Jerusalem shall be inhabited again, even in Jerusalem." John Owen (1670)

(An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews, Second Edition, Volume 1, published in Edinburgh in 1812. Quotes are from pages 443-444 and 454-455.)

From Reformed Perspectives on the Jewish People. (Emphasis and italics are mine.)

A Brief History of Israel, Palestine and Jerusalem

Abraham to David (2000 B.C. - 1000 B.C)

I (the webmaster) believe that as we understand some of Jerusalem's history and relationship to God according to his word we will better be able to better understand Jerusalem's future and destiny as he reveals it in his word. This will also help us to better understand how God works in his people, both Jew and Gentile, and God's plan for for everything to culminate in the glorification of his son with his people ("God's elect") who make up heavenly Jerusalem and the Israel of God according to the scriptures.

The descendants of the Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were called Hebrews (meaning "one from the other side [possibly of the Euphrates river]" or "crossed over" or "immigrant" or wanderer c.f. World English Dictionary from Eber, son of Shem, son of Noah) in the land of Canaan. (Shem, who was still living at the time of Abraham, is the one from whom comes the name "Shemites" or Semites".) Abram (his original name) and his family came originally from Ur of Chaldea (later called Babylon, now Iraq/Turkey) between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.

Abram, upon hearing God's call, "Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will show thee," (Gen 12:1) left Haran (now in Turkey) and journeyed to the land of Canaan at around 2000 B.C. God establishes his covenant of blessing, land and seed:

Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will show thee:
And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:
And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
So Abram departed, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran.
And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came.
And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, unto the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land.
And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land: and there builded he an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him. (KJV) (
Gen 12:1-7)

Much later, at God's command, he went to Mount Moriah (just North of Salem) to sacrifice his "only" son, Isaac. Through God's intervention, he sacrificed a ram to God in place of his son.

The term, Hebrew, was used by the Canaanites for Abraham, the "immigrant" from Chaldea (Iraq/Turkey region on the Euphrates) and for Abraham's descendants through Isaac and Jacob beginning approximately 2000 B.C. God gave Abraham's grandson, Jacob, (meaning deceiver) the name Israel (perseveres/prevails with God or God prevails) following his struggle all night wrestling with an angel of God (Gen. 32:24-32). Jacob, his twelve sons, and his family of about 70 moved to Egypt where his son, Joseph, had become the ruler of Egypt under the Pharaoh around 1800 B.C.

Moses led the Hebrews, the twelve tribes of Israel, in the Exodus from Egypt at about 1500 B.C. God appears to them at Mt. Sinai and gives his Law to them through Moses. He continues and expands his covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and now their descendants, by sacrifice at Mt. Sinai. God leads Israel through the wilderness to the land of Canaan, but they rebel and attempt return to Egypt. God ends the rebellion and they wander in the wilderness for 40 years. (Numbers)

The next generation, at God's command, finally conquers the land of Canaan under Joshua around 1400 B.C. (Joshua). Israel under Joshua conquers much of Canaan, including the area of the Galilee (Hebrew for "district" or "circuit") and Jerusalem, but leaves many pockets of Canaanites whom they are unable to conquer. The name Jordan (Heb. Yarden, meaning River Dan or "River that descends from Dan"), refers to the Hebrew tribe of Dan which settled around the North end of the river after the conquest under Joshua. The twelve tribes of Israel teeter back and forth in the Land between autonomy led by judges whom God raised up as deliverers and oppression under the Canaanites and outside nations (Judges).

After about 400 years, the people demand of the latest judge and prophet, Samuel, that God give them a king. Samuel, at God's command, anoints Saul of the tribe of Benjamin as the first king of Israel around 1050 B.C. This king, whom the people had demanded, eventually rebels against God and Samuel. God sends Samuel to anoint a new king, a "man after God's own heart", a shepherd boy named David, Son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah, to be the new king of Israel. After many attempts by Saul to kill David, David and his growing army of disenchanted Israelites eventually went over to the Philistines to hide from Saul. In a major battle with the Philistines, Saul is killed.

At God's direction, David returns to Israel in the land of Judah, to the city of Hebron. There, Judah anoints him king at around 1000 B.C., but the 10 other tribes side with Saul's son. Civil war ensues for the next seven years, with David and his kingdom gradually becoming stronger. Finally, the top general of the northern 10 tribes convinces all of the leaders to make David king of "all that his heart desires", over the entire kingdom of Israel.

David then conquers from its Jebusite inhabitants the hilltop village of Jerusalem, located in the Judean mountains of the tribe of Benjamin, the dwelling place of Melchizedek, king of Salem, 1000 ears earlier. David calls Jerusalem "the City of David" and he makes it the eternal capital city of his kingdom.

David brings the ark of God's Covenant (originally kept in the tabernacle of Moses) to Jerusalem and makes a temporary tent/tabernacle for it which the Bible calls the Tabernacle of David. From then on this is where he meets with and worships the Covenant God of Israel. But David continually seeks out a permanent place for the ark. He soon begins planning to build a "house" for God and the ark. But God, through the prophet, Nathan, while blessing him for having this on his heart, tells David that he cannot build the temple for he is "a man of blood". It will be built by his son, Solomon, during a reign of shalom or peace/completeness.

David rules as king of Israel for 40 years, defeating the Philistines and many other huge armies from the surrounding nations and empires which become tributaries and dominions under David. By the end of David's life he is ruling over much of the region that God promised to Israel in Genesis through Deuteronomy.

Near the end of David's life, God reveals to him the location of the temple. It is on Mount Moriah, just north of the City of David, on the threshing floor of Arunah/Ornan the Jebusite, the spot, Moriah ("Ordained by Yahweh"), where God had commanded Abraham to sacrifice his only beloved, begotten son, Isaac, and where God then provided a substitute sacrifice in Isaac's place. David purchases this spot from Arunah for 400 shekels of silver and builds an altar on that spot to God who accepts and consumes David's sacrifice by fire. David immediately recognizes that this is to be the location of God's temple. (See 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel.)

Solomon to Exile (950 B.C. - 600 B.C.)

Around 950 B.C. Solomon, the son of David, becomes king of Israel and begins building God's temple on Mount Moriah according to the plans God revealed to his father, locating the Holiest Place, the Holy of Holies of the temple, on the spot revealed to his father. Upon completion of the temple, the ark of the covenant is brought into the Holiest Place and Solomon offers sacrifices through the Levitical priests according to the Law. The cloud of God's glory comes into the Holiest Place and fills the temple such that none of the people can stand, all falling before him in worship. Yet Solomon acknowledges in his prayer, "But will God indeed dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house that I have builded?" (1 Kings 1-8)

Solomon ruled over a much larger region than his father, over much of what is now called the Middle-East, for 40 years.

Almost all of the kingdom was lost by his son, Rehoboam, during which time nine of the northern tribes revolted and split from Judah, forming their own kingdom of Israel, also called Samaria. By around 900 B.C., there were two nations in the Land -- Israel in the North and Judah in the South (which also included Benjamin and some of Simeon). The priestly tribe of Levi was interspersed among all of the the other 11 tribes, but some of Levi in the North probably fled South to Judah after the split. Thereafter, the region of Galilee/Samaria and its people are called Israel and the southern region and people are called Judah, and its people, Jews (Heb. Yehuda and Yehudim). Outside the Bible, "The earliest archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE).[29]" Wikipedia on "Israel".

The Northern kingdom of Israel lasted for about another 300 years and the southern kingdom 100 years longer before being conquered by Assyria and Babylon respectively. By the time of its conquest, the Northern kingdom was heavily into it's own religion of various idols and had lost all identity as a people connected with the God of Israel. Perversion, immorality (religious and social) and violence were rampant. God "cast them out" of the Land as promised by Moses and many prophets God had sent to them. Much of the Northern populace was exiled to Assyria and the region repopulated by the Assyrians with peoples from numerous other nations under its dominion. (1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles) From then on the people in that region were called Samaritans by the Jews in the South.

The southern kingdom of Judah lasted under various kings descended from David until about 600 B.C. By then Judah had descended into various forms of idolatry incorporated into the rites and sacrifices of the temple worship in Jerusalem along with pervasive social immorality, violence and oppression of and permanent enslavement of the poor. Judah had become worse than exiled Israel. It was conquered by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 600 B.C., but allowed some self-rule under kings chosen by Nebuchadnezzar. After several years of subjection to Babylon, the Judean king, Zedekiah, rebelled. Nebuchadnezzar defeated Zedekiah and the Jews after a 3-year siege of Jerusalem. Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed. All but the poorest of the land were exiled to Babylon. Many of those who remained fled to Egypt which was subsequently also conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. (See Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel.)

From the Hebrew exodus out of Egypt (1500 B.C., see Exodus) through the time of David (1000 B.C.) and ultimately the Northern tribes' (Israel's) removal to Assyria (700 B.C.) and the southern tribe's (Judah's) exile to Babylon (600 B.C.) the land is called Canaan, the "land of Canaan," "the Land" and "land of Israel", and "land of Judah" in the South. The people are called the Hebrews, Israel, then Judah and the Jews in the South after the split. By 600 B.C. the land in the South where Jerusalem lay in ruins is usually called "the Land" and "Judah", and the people are called "the Jews" or Israel.

The language of the Hebrews (which we call Hebrew) was eventually called by themselves and others in the Bible "the Jews' language". It is called "the language of Canaan" in Isaiah 19 (approximately 700 B.C.). This language was mostly the Canaanite language which came from the older Phoenician language. Some Egyptian, and significant Assyrian and Babylonian (Aramaic) influence and concepts affected the language over time.

Restoration from Exile to the Coming of Jesus Christ (500 B.C. - 30 A.D.)

But God promises in the prophets to judge Babylon and restore Israel to himself and to their land.

Cut off the sower from Babylon, and him that handleth the sickle in the time of harvest: for fear of the oppressing sword they shall turn every one to his people, and they shall flee every one to his own land.
Israel is a scattered sheep; the lions have driven him away: first the king of Assyria hath devoured him; and last this Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath broken his bones.
Therefore thus saith the [Jehovah] of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will punish the king of Babylon and his land, as I have punished the king of Assyria.
And I will bring Israel again to his habitation, and he shall feed on Carmel and Bashan, and his soul shall be satisfied upon mount Ephraim and Gilead.
In those days, and in that time, saith the [Jehovah] the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none; and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found: for I will pardon them whom I reserve.
(Jeremiah 50:16-20, ~610 B.C.)

Almost 100 years before the return, God names the Persian king whom he will command to issue a decree for the Jews to return and rebuild the city and temple.

Thus saith the [Jehovah], thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the [Jehovah] that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;
That frustrateth the tokens of the liars, and maketh diviners mad; that turneth wise men backward, and maketh their knowledge foolish;
That confirmeth the word of his servant, and performeth the counsel of his messengers;
that saith to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited; and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built, and I will raise up the decayed places thereof:
That saith to the deep, Be dry, and I will dry up thy rivers:
That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid.
Thus saith the [Jehovah] to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut;
I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight: I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron:
And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I, the [Jehovah], which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel.
For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name: I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me.
I am the [Jehovah], and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me:
That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside me. I am the [Jehovah], and there is none else.
I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the [Jehovah] do all these things. (Isaiah 44:24-45:7, ~700 B.C.)

Around 540 B.C., Cyrus, the king of the Medo-Persian empire who conquered the Babylonian empire, issued a decree that the Jews should return to their land, rebuild the temple in Jerusalem and renew the worship and sacrifices to "Jehovah God of heaven", "the God of Israel" in Jerusalem as prophesied by Isaiah 200 years earlier and by Jeremiah 100 years earlier.

Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, [Jehovah] God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Who is there among you of all his people? his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the house of [Jehovah] God of Israel, (he is the God,) which is in Jerusalem. And whosoever remaineth in any place where he sojourneth, let the men of his place help him with silver, and with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, beside the freewill offering for the house of God that is in Jerusalem. (KJV) (1 Chron. 36-Ezra 1, ~540 B.C.)

Waves of Jews began returning to the Land and to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple and the city which by this time was mostly burned rubble. A large group led by Ezra, a Levitical priest, returned. He was given ruling authority by Cyrus with the commission to lead his people back to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple. (See Ezra.) The city of Jerusalem continued in a state of uninhabitable disrepair. Nehemiah, a Jewish official in the court of the Persian king, Artaxerxes, returned with a group and stirred up the people to begin clearing the rubble and rebuilding the wall and the city. (See Nehemiah)

After all had been rebuilt, Alexander the Great of the Macedonian/Greek empire arrived with his armies in "Iudaea" (Judah) around 300 B.C. and gave the Jews almost complete autonomy and self-rule. Alexander died early, and the entire Greek empire was divided among his four top generals.

Over the next 150 years, huge wars developed between kings of the divided Greek empire, particularly between the Seleucid Greeks of Syria and the Ptolemy Greeks of Egypt. The Seleucids under Antiochus Epiphanes eventually dominated. Antiochus and his Greek soldiers filled the Land and took Jerusalem. They brutally enforced Greek god-worship and culture upon the Jews and did away with the Covenant, Jewish Law and temple practice, replacing all with Greek paganism. He forced Jews to defile themselves, and he defiled the temple by sacrificing pigs and pouring the remains on the temple alter and Holiest Place. All who resisted were tortured and killed.

The Maccabees of Judah, 164-63 B.C. In the small village of Modine, Greek soldiers called the people to a gathering to worship the Greek gods and to enforce the sacrifice of a pig and the eating of its flesh. A leading Jewish priest in the town, Mattathias the Hasmonean, and his seven sons, revolted, killing the Greek soldiers and one of the Jews who had stepped forward to go along with the new rituals. This began a revolt against the Seleucid (Syrian) Greeks led by the Mattathias and then his oldest son, Judas the Maccabee (meaning hammer), which spread throughout the nation. This included civil war between the Maccabees and pro Maccabee/Law-keeping Jews on one side and the Hellenized (Greek-oriented) Jews on the other. The leaders of the former developed into what became the party of the Pharisees, the latter, the Sadducees.

Gradually the Maccabees and their Jewish armies prevailed, drove the Greeks out of most of Judea, retook Jerusalem and the temple, cleansed it and rededicated it to the God of Israel. According to story in the books of the Maccabees, they found enough oil to light the lampstand in the holy place for one day. Creating and consecrating new "holy" oil would take seven more days. According to the narrative, the lamps miraculously continued to burn for the entire eight days until the new oil was ready. This was celebrated and became what is now known as Hanukkah (the Dedication) (c.f. Jesus in the Temple at the Dedication (Enkainia, Gk), John 10:22-39) or "Lights". (See Daniel 7-12, 1 & 2 Maccabees, Josephus, Wikipedia on the Maccabees)

By 150 B.C. the Romans referred to the northern region of the land by the Latinized name, Galilea, and the southern region as Iudaea. The area between the Galilee and Judea was called Samaria, as in the New Testament, and is still called Samaria by the Samaritans living there now (as of 2013). The largest Jewish-controlled territory before being conquered by Rome consisted of Judea, Samaria, most of Idumea, and most of the Galilee.

Judea in the 1st century, from Wikipedia Roman general, Pompey, conquered the Galilea/Samaria/Judea/Idumea region including Jerusalem in 63 B.C. (c.f. Judea and Judea (Roman province)). He entered the temple and went into the Holy of Holies, apparently to see for himself if the Jews actually worshiped a god who lived in an empty room. (He committed suicide several years later after losing a battle against Julius Caesar.)

Jesus (Yeshua in Hebrew, meaning Savior), descendant of David, Son of Man, Son of God, the promised Messiah according to the Bible, was born in Bethlehem near Jerusalem between 5 and 4 B.C. in fulfillment of Micah 5:2. He was crucified by the Romans between 29 and 33 A.D. at the insistence of the Jewish religious leaders just outside of Jerusalem according to the plan and prophecies of the Old Testament scriptures. He was buried in a rich man's tomb.

Before his crucifixion, he referred to himself (his body) as the true temple of God that would be destroyed (by the religious leaders) which he would then raise up again. (John 2:19-22) He wept over Jerusalem; for its rejection of him and its consequent coming destruction.

Jesus, called the Messah/Christ, the Son of God, the Son of Man, Immanuel (God is with us), King and Messiah of the Jews and Jerusalem, Lion of the tribe of Judah, was the final sacrifice and atonement required by the God the Father to pay the price for the sin of his people and to bring them into his new covenant (Jeremiah 31) and into God's temple (dwelling place) in heaven. He was resurrected on the third day as was fortold by the Old Testament prophets, and was seen by over 500 witnesses at once before being "taken up" in a cloud into heaven from where he rules as Lord and King of heaven and earth. He is coming again according to the Bible (Old and New Testaments) in glory and power. (See Matthew, Luke, John, Acts and Revelation.)

Roman Destruction of Jerusalem and Israel (70 A.D. - 135 A.D.)

Rome continued it's rule of the region until the first Jewish revolt of 66 A.D. In this revolt the Jews drove the Romans out of Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria and much of the Galilee. Most Jewish believers in Jesus fled as warned to do by Jesus. Rome returned with large armies under Vespesian, then his son, Titus, and reconquered the region. They conquered the last holdout -- Jerusalem -- and destroyed the city and the temple except for part of an outer temple wall (now called the Western Wall or wailing wall) as prophesied by Jesus. (See Mat. 23:37-24:2) Roman rule continued until 132 A.D. (See Josephus, "The Jewish War")

A second Jewish revolt broke out in 132 A.D. (Some historians refer to this as the third revolt.) The Roman emperor Hadrian had earlier completely razed the city of Jerusalem and had begun rebuilding it as a Roman pagan city, giving it the name Aelia Capitolina, along with a pagan temple of Jupiter on the holy mount where the Jewish temple had stood. The Jews, who had been in preparation for years, revolted. The leading Rabbi, Akiva, declared Simon bar Kochba, the head of the Jewish armies, to be the messiah. At this point, most remaining Jewish believers in Jesus separated from the majority, refusing to have anything to do with this messiah.

This time the Jews achieved much greater success. They retook Jerusalem and most of Judea, Samaria and Galilee from the Romans, retaining their independence for three years. They referred to this as "The Redemption of Israel" and "The Freedom of Israel" on their coinage. Wikipedia on bar Kokhba and Bar Kochba Revolt coinage (as of 2012).

After heavy fighting for two years at terrible cost to the Romans, Hadrian and his armies (much larger than those used to put down the first revolt of 66 A.D.) defeated Bar Kochba and the Jewish armies in 135 A.D. and slaughtered or carried away as slaves most of the remaining Jews in the land. "The Jerusalem Talmud relates that the numbers slain were enormous, that the Romans "went on killing until their horses were submerged in blood to their nostrils. [11]" Jerusalem was further razed and divested of any of its former identity. Wikipedia on Hadrian.

Lead-up to Modern Palestine and Israel (135 A.D. - 1200 A.D.)

The Philistines originally inhabited the area now called Gaza and the plains of Judea (southern coastal area of Canaan) from before the time of Abraham, 2000 B.C.. Abraham met them and traded with them in Canaan as did Isaac. At that time they made covenants of peace with one another. By the time the Hebrews/Israel returned to Canaan from Egypt after the exodus in 1400 B.C., the Philistines had become strong, and they controlled much of the territory that was given by God, according to Scripture, to Judah, though they are the only major people group in the land of Canaan who were not in the Old Testament list of Canaanite nations to be displaced. Throughout most of Israel's history since the Hebrew invasion of Canaan after the Exodus, the Philistines were Israel's archenemies, and there were frequent and fierce wars between them. The Philistines severely oppressed Israel whenever they could. After David became king of Israel in 1000 B.C. the Philistines attacked him numerous times, but he repeatedly defeated them. They eventually made peace with and brought tribute to David's son, Solomon. The Philistines remained unconquered until defeated by the Babylonian and Persian empires in the 600s-400s B.C., and they disappeared as a distinct people by the late 5th century (400s) B.C.

The area now consisting of Modern Israel and the West Bank was called in the Bible, Caanan and "the Land", beginning with God's promise to Abraham in Gen. 15:18-21 and Land of Israel beginning in 1 Sam 13:19. (See "Land of Israel" in Wikipedia as of 2013.) The Southwest region along the Mediterranean inhabited by the Philistines was called in the Canaanite/Hebrew language, Philistia. Keep this in mind, as we are working towards an understanding of how the region came to be called "Palestine".

Iudea (Judea in Englsh) was the official name of the Roman province making up Judah, Samaria and Idumea from the 2nd century B.C. The name, Palaestina (pronounced "palesteena" or "Filistin" in Arabic) was also used rarely by Romans and other nations for part of the region. Some Greek writings from the 6th century (500s) B.C. also referred to this region as "Palaistinee". Wikipedia on Judea, Palestine, Syria-Palaestina (as of 2012). The New Testament at the time of Christ always refers to the region by the commonly known names of Judea and Samaria.

After the Roman emperor Hadrian defeated the Jews in 135 A.D. he officially renamed the entire region of Judea/Samaria/Galilea along with much of Lebanon, Syria and present day Jordan "Syria-Palaestina" in an apparent attempt to remove all traces of reference to Judea and the Jews. (This is most of the region also referred to by historians and archaeologists as the Levant.) The name Palestina comes from Israel's long-time enemies, the Philistines (e.g. Josh 13:1-8 1300 B.C., Zeph 2:4-7 450 B.C. et. al).

"At the former Temple sanctuary, [Hadrian, 135 A.D.] installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea or Ancient Israel, he wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines, the ancient enemies of the Jews [citation needed]), supplanting earlier terms, such as 'Judaea' and Israel. Similarly, he re-established Jerusalem but now as the Roman pagan polis of Aelia Capitolina, and Jews were forbidden from entering it, except on the day of Tisha B'Av [13] [9th of Av on the Jewish calendar, the date the Temple was thought to have been destroyed]." From that time the entire region was broadly known by the name of the ancient Philistines -- Palaestina and later Palestine.
. . .

To briefly recapitulate:

66-70 CE [1st century] The Jews drove the Romans out of Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria and much of the Galilee. Rome returned with large armies and reconquered the region. They conquered the last holdout -- Jerusalem -- and destroyed the city and the temple.

132-135 CE [2nd century] The Jews under Bar Kochba and Rabbi Akiva revolted the second time against Rome and drove them out of the region with a terrible slaughter of the Roman soldiers. They referred to their brief three-years of independence as "The Redemption of Israel" and "The Freedom of Israel". The ultimate failure of the revolt led to the worst slaughter and enslavement of Jews in their history. The Roman emperor Hadrian renamed the entire region along with surrounding regions, Syria-Palaestina, or Palaestina.

"In 351352 CE [4th century], the Jews launched yet a fourth revolt [in Palaestina], provoking once again heavy retribution [and slaughter by the Roman armies].[16]"

"In 438 CE [5th century], when the Empress Eudocia removed the ban on Jews' praying at the Temple site, the heads of the Community in Galilee issued a call "to the great and mighty people of the Jews" which began: "Know that the end of the exile of our people has come!"[16][19]

"During the 5th and the 6th centuries, a series of Samaritan insurrections broke out across the Palaestina Prima province. Especially violent were the third and the fourth revolts, which resulted in the annihilation of almost entire the Samaritan community. It is likely that the 4th Samaritan Revolt was joined by the Jewish community, which had also suffered a brutal suppression of Israelite (Mosaic) religion."

In the early early 7th century, "In the belief of restoration to come, the Jews made an alliance with the Persians who invaded Palaestina Prima in 614, fought at their side, overwhelmed the Byzantine [eastern Roman] garrison in Jerusalem, and for five years governed the city.[16] However, their autonomy was brief
: with the withdrawal of Persian forces, Jews surrendered to Byzantine forces in 625 CE and were consequently massacred in 629 CE. The Byzantine control of the region was finally lost to the Muslim Arab armies in 637 CE, when Umar ibn al-Khattab completed the conquest of Akko." From Wikipedia as of 2012 on the Bar Kokhba revolt

The Palestine region was further "cleansed" of Jews by the Crusaders who slaughtered all Jews, Muslims and Christians (non-Catholics) they found in Jerusalem and elsewhere in 1219.

Between 135 A.D. and the 1800s Palestine waxed and waned from depopulation and wilderness between wars to highly developed Jewish and Arab/Gentile civilization and trade. While a continuous population of Jews remained in the land, especially in the Galilee, exiled Jews and other various people groups returned or moved in under various dominions over the millennia. South of the Galilee the land became almost devoid of Jews since their 4th major defeat by the Byzantines in the 700s and further "cleansed" under the Crusaders in 1219. Jews subsequently returned to Jerusalem whenever they were allowed to by the Arab or Ottoman rulers. The major dominions over Palestine during the last two millennia have been Roman, Byzantine, Persian, Arab, Crusader, Egyptian Mamluk, Ottoman-Turk and British.

History of Modern Palestine (1200 A.D. - 1917)

Over the next few centuries after the Crusades of the 1200s and beginning seriously in the mid to late 1800s, waves of Jews from Europe and later, Africa, the Arab nations of the Middle East, South America, Russia and the other former Soviet republics, and other nations migrated to Palestine, many dying enroute due to the harsh conditions. Palestine at this time consisted of most of what is now Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, the West Bank, Israel and Gaza, also known as the Levant. The people living there, mostly Arabs (the majority), Christians and Jews, were all called Palestinians. It was sparsely populated in most places, especially South of the Galilee. Where land in Palestine was owned by others (mostly Arabs and the Greek Orthodox Church), it was purchased by Jewish organizations and settlers, usually at extremely exorbitant prices until the Arab-Israeli war of 1948.

In the late 1800s/early 1900s new influxes/waves of Jews came into all the regions of Palestine from all over the world as they attempted to escape from new persecutions and pogroms. There was no "partition" and there were no national borders as we know them now. All was under the dominion of the Ottoman empire at that time. By 1903 there were approximately 30,000 Jews in settlements in the Palestinian regions of Galilee/Judea/Jerusalem and an estimated 750,000 Arabs and other nationalities. Still a sparse population for that area, much of which remained as mostly wilderness. (For comparison, the population of Chicago and immediate suburbs was 7 million as of 2000). Zionist leaders in Europe met to plan and appeal to European governments to allow for a Jewish homeland in the British Commonwealth where Jews would be safe from persecution. Part of Uganda and several other territories were considered by Zionist and European leaders, but none were considered viable except currently settled and wilderness areas of Palestine.

During WW1 (1914-1918) the the British General Lord Allenby and his army conquered much of the Middle-East (including the Levant or Palestine) from the Ottoman Turks. In appreciation for breakthrough assistance in science, technology and finances given by the Jewish people to the war effort, the British government issued the Balfour Declaration in 1917, promising a homeland in Palestine for the Jewish people. After the war, the mandate to govern all of Palestine was officially given by the League of Nations to Great Britain.

Recent History of Modern Palestine and Israel (1920s - 1948)

From the late 1800s till now, the fight between Arabs and Jews over Palestine had been bitter and bloody. From the Palestinian Arab perspective, the European and Russian people calling themselves Jews moved into their territory over the centuries, drove them out of their land and took their homes, land, towns and villages away where many had lived for millennia, some going back to the time of Christ. (Most nations, including the U.S., are guilty of doing this as well.)

From the Jewish perspective, the land was always theirs from the time of Abraham, given to them by God, and at least a remnant has always lived in the land from the time Joshua and the twelve tribes entered Canaan (1400 B.C.). Nevertheless, they paid Arab land-holders in Palestine exhorbitant sums of money all over Palestine and in Jerusalem over many years in order to settle and develop a safe homeland for the Jewish people. Their goal was to pioneer, develop, agriculturalize, industrialize and modernize whatever land, wilderness or desert they could purchase and settle on, no matter how inhospitable or seemingly useless it was. The goal of making the land productive, intensive education and building of universities, schools and hospitals for all was part of their effort. Many Christians and churches helped substantially in these endevors. Jews have considered Jerusalem to be their capital from the time King David took it from the Jebusites around 1000 B.C. Yet the majority of them pursued this dream in self-reliance with very little thought of God and his plan. Most orthodox Jews who were in the minority looked to the Bible and their traditions as the basis for their effort with fervent belief in a coming Messiah to Jerusalem and regathering of the diaspora to the land.

Beginning with the British mandate to govern Palestine and much of the Middle East in 1921, the British government increasingly blocked Jews from entering Palestine. During WW II they reduced Jewish immigration to a trickle. From the end of WW II in 1945 to their departure in 1948 the British totally blocked tens of thousands of escaping European Holocaust-survivors and all other Jews from entry, putting them by the shipload into huge prison camps. In the meantime, battles in Palestine between Arab and Jew grew increasingly bloody.

The U.N. attempted to resolve the conflict by carving a small, indefensible sliver of territory out of Palestine/Transjordan (much of it Arab-owned and populated land) to create a Jewish partition, and left the rest of Palestine/Transjordan and the Levant/Middle East to the Arabs. As of 1947 the population in the Jewish partition (less than the area of Delaware) was 67% non-Jewish, mostly Arab, and 33% Jewish. In 1947 there were approximately 1,237,000 Arabs and 608,000 Jews in the Jewish partition along with a number of other nationalities, according to Wikipedia's (as of 2011) sources. The population density of the region was still relatively sparse. After the Arabs attacked the Jewish partitoin upon U.N. recognition of Israel, the new state fought back and "cleansed" their partition by driving most of the Arabs out. They took over hundreds of Arab towns and villages along with many Arab farms throughout and beyond the partition. A million Jews at that time also lived among the Arabs throughout the rest of the Levant/Palestinian regions, the Middle East and Africa. They were driven out, and those who survived fled to the new nation of Israel.

During the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, a massive exodus of nearly a million Arabs from and influx of a million Jews into the Jewish partition drastically changed the makeup of the newly formed state of Israel. Incredibly, the earlier and much worse instance of a massive exchange of millions and deaths of over a million Muslims and Hindus in the formation of Pakistan from India six months earlier in August 1947 was and is still barley considered by comparison.

By 2010 the population within Israeli borders was about 7.5 million. About 5.5 million were Jewish (about 80%) and the rest Arab Israeli (about 20%), Bedouin and other ethnic groups and nationalities. (From various Wikipedia articles)

The term "Palestinian" until 1948 (whenever the term was used) referred to all inhabitants of all regions of Palestine, irrespective of their ethnicities or nationalities. Jew, Arab, Gentile or whatever -- all long-term residents in the land were Palestinians. The Palestine Post (now the Jerusalem Post) was founded in 1925 by Jewish writers for all English and French-speaking Palestinians, especially the Jewish ones. Arabs increasingly distanced themselves from being identified as "Palestinians". After Israeli independence and conquest of the "Jewish partition" in 1948, the Arabs in former Palestine, including Jordan, began to identify as Palestinians, particularly after Yasser Arafat began the Arab uprising against Israel, while the Jews identified as Israelis. This was a reversal of those who identified themselves as Palestinians before Israeli independence.

Remember that the term "Palestine" (Palaestina) was the new name officially applied by the Roman Emperor, Hadrian, to the most of the Levant region after he had defeated the Jews in 165 A.D. Until Hadrian, most of the biblical region had been called by the former names of Canaan, Israel, Judea and Galilee. The area belonging to the Philistines from before 2000 B.C. (which changed back and forth between them and Israel until Israel prevailed under David) was called Philistia (Palaestina in Latin and Greek). This was the general rule until the Babylonian and Persian invasions of 600-400 B.C. From Hadrian's conquest until 1948, the territory called Palestine included much of Syria, Lebanon, much of what became the new nation of Jordan (originally Transjordan) and what is now modern Israel. See "Definitions of Palestinian," Wikipedia as of 2012

Here is how the original 1948 borders of modern Israel came about. From the early 1900s, especially after WW1, Arabs increasingly attacked growing Jewish settlements as the Jews strove to form settlements out of what they possessed in the regions of Palestine. There were a number of terrible slaughters of Jews by Arabs. In 1937 the Arabs launched a full-scale revolt against the British occupation. 1000s of Palestinian Arabs were killed by the British and Palestinian Jews as they put down the revolt. After the revolt, the British changed tactics, deciding that the Jews were more expendable under the circumstances, and increasingly did everything possible to keep the Jews in Palestine from defending themselves against the Arabs who continued attacking Jewish settlements and territory. In response, the Jews developed military training programs and militias, and struggled to find ways to protect themselves with financial and material help from Jewish and some Christian communities and organizations.

On Nov. 30, 1947 the newly formed U.N. voted to approve a resolution to end the British Mandate in Palestine and implement a plan for the partition of the region between the Arabs and Jews, to be effective on May 15, 1948. The Jewish partition was relatively small. The rest of the Levant region was left to the Arabs. Both "partitions" contained Arabs and Jews, with the Jews being a small minority. The Jewish leaders in Palestine agreed to the U.N. partition plan; the Arabs rejected it. This plan consisted of a small slice of indefensible land and borders of majority-owned Arab land and villages for the Jews, and various remaining portions of the Palestine regions and the rest of the Levant/Middle East left for the Arabs. The ethnic majority in the Jewish partition was overwhelmingly Arab. Arab leaders rejected the plan as unfair and unacceptable, and most of the leaders announced their intention to drive the Jews into the Mediterranean and/or annihilate them, while the Jewish leaders completed their plan to drive out most of the Arabs from the Jewish partition.

Immediately after the U.N. resolution was announced, the Jewish leaders declared an independent state which they called Israel, to become effective on May 14th 1948. The Jewish leaders had drawn up plans to expel much of the Arab population from the Jewish partition, including from the many Arab towns, villages and farms, but also planned to allow many Arabs to stay with the opportunity to become Israeli citizens.

The 1948 Arab-Israeli War

On April 1, 1948, in the midst of fierce battles between Arabs and Jews, Britain completed withdrawal of its forces from Palestine, usually assisting the Arabs as much as possible in the process. British officers informed the Jewish leaders that they would not last more than a few weeks, a month at most. Jewish officers informed them otherwise.

Poorly organized, but murderous Arab partisans and militias, along with better equipped troops from surrounding nations who had infiltrated the Jewish partition, consisting of 12,000 to 15,000 in total attacked the Jewish towns, settlements and farm communes in the newly declared state of Israel inside and outside of the U.N.-alotted Jewish partition, which at the start was over two-thirds Arab. At the same time the Israelis put their plan into effect to "cleanse" the Jewish partition of most Arabs and make it into a viable and defensible Jewish state.

In 1948 the Israelis had a total of about 38,000 men and women, mostly new refugees from other countries, along with several thousand armed settlers, but most were not well equipped nor able to communicate well among themselves in the beginning. About 80% of the Arabs in Jewish territory including West Jerusalem and in 100s of Arab towns, about 750,000, fled or were driven out by the Israelis. The fleeing Arabs poured into the West Bank areas (Jordanian territory on the West side of the Jordan River) of Jordan, Syria and Lebanon where they were kept by those nations from assimilation in squalid refugee camps. About 20% of the Arabs chose to stay in the new state of Israel. As the tide of the war began to turn in Israel's favor, trained and better-equipped Arab armies with air support from Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Syria and two or three other countries invaded. Jordan's plan was to take as much of the West Bank (land West of the Jordan River) and of the Jewish partition as possible, including Jerusalem. Egypt's plan was to take the Gaza, Palestinian territory and as much of the Jewish partition as possible. For the next year, the Israelis fought off the militias and invading Arab armies in many terrible, bloody battles, but were driven out of East Jerusalem and the Old City which became a part of Jordanian West Bank territory. At the same time, Israel drove many of the Arabs out of West Jerusalem.

At the beginning of the war, it appeared to most of the world that another Jewish holocaust would take place. Atrocities were committed on both sides. The Jews allowed many Arabs to stay in Israeli territory, but the Arabs for the most part were intent on eliminating the Jews altogether.

As the war continued, all Jews in most Arab countries throughout Africa and the Middle-East were completely driven out. Most, if they could make it, fled to Israel. Among the foremost thoughts in the minds of most Jews was that If they lost the war, judging from past treatment and threats at the hands of their enemies, none of them would survive. However they had been long in planning on how to win the expected war, though top Israeli leadership gave themselves only a 50% chance of success. In the second half of 1948 Israel went on the offensive and took most of the Jewish partition along with about 60% of the rest of [West Bank] Palestinian territory alotted to the Arabs West of the Jordan river. "1948 Palestine War","1948 Arab-Israeli War" (Wikipedia as of 2013)

Where did the term, "West Bank" come from? Until the U.N. patron, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan (Transjordan) had been part of Palestine. During the 1948 war ending in Israel's independence (called by Arabs the great catastrophe), Jordan took Palestinian territory on the west side of the Jordan River which included territory almost up to the Mediterranean Sea (a remaining 9-mile wide section was retained by Israel) which Jordan referred to as its West Bank (the land on the West side of the Jordan River). This land was mostly Arab territory taken by the Jordanian army, not alottted to Jordan by the U.N.). Egypt took Gaza.

During the year of fighting in 1948 the Israeli army took whatever territory it could beyond the original narrow partition lines to establish more defensible borders. Almost all remaining Jews (nearly 1 million over the next 30 years) in African and Asian/Middle-eastern Arab nations, Palestinian territories and East Jerusalem were driven out and most fled to newly formed Israel. At the same time, nearly 1 million Palestinian Arabs who had fled or been driven out by the Israelis, waited in squalid West Bank, Jordanian and Lebanese refugee camps for the expected defeat of the Zionist Jews (as they were called) so that they could return.

From 1948 to 1967, access to Jordan's West Bank territory by Jews, including East Jerusalem and the Old City, was forbidden in violation of the U.N. resolution and truce agreement between Israel and Jordan. The Arab refugees were forbidden by Israel in violation of the U.N. resolution from returning to the homes they had fled and/or been driven from. See "Palestine" and "United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine" and "the Arab-Israeli War," Wikipedia as of 2011 Neither were the approximately one million Jews who had fled Arab lands allowed to return, nor did they wish or intend to for obvious reasons. Both groups lost everything and had to start over, but the Arab nations refused to provide much assistance to their people other than to keep them in the squalid refugee camps near the boders with Israel, with the assumption among all that Israel would soon be eliminated and that they would return.

Remember the same, much more massive and deadly cross migrations between Muslims and Hindus between Pakistan and India six months earlier with a vastly greater loss of lives on both sides as well as many other similar past and recent cases of forced population migrations and ethnic cleansings with comparitively little attention paid to those massive deadly exchanges. The difference in world focus is incredible. Yet the focus is the same as where the God of the Bible has focused and has been sovereignly moving all along.

The 1967 6-Day War

In 1967 the 6-Day War broke out as a result of increasing Arab attacks, threats and acts of war by Egypt's President Nasser. Troop deployments, naval blockades and promises to destroy Israel grew in intensity. Israel finally preemptively attacked Egypt. Jordan then attacked Israel. The Israeli army took the entire Sinai peninsula, Gaza and West Bank of the Jordan river including East Jerusalem and the Old City. The Jewish state declared its sovereignty over the all of Jerusalem but left most of the holy places and the temple mount in the Old City in the possession of the Arab inhabitants, officially under Jordan's management. Jews then began flocking back to the Old City and East Jerusalem for the first time since being driven out in 1948. (For a good documentary, see the book, From Time Immemorial, by Joan Peters, Myths and Facts and A Peace to End All Peace by David Fromkin (I haven't read them) by Mitchell Bard.) See also "Six-Day War", Wikipedia

The Zionist Dream

An important difference between ancient entries to the Land by the Hebrews/ Israel from other lands -- Abraham from Ur/Chaldea (2000 B.C.), Moses/Joshua and Israel from Egypt (1400 B.C) and Judah from Babylon (600-500 B.C) -- and the modern return of the Jews, is that the earlier returns were commanded and initiated either directly by God or by God through his prophets, according to the Bible.

The modern return has arisen out of a people's dream to return to the Land called Zion and to Jerusalem which they believed God had given them. (As the Jewish Passover seder has ended every year for a thousand years with all saying "Next year in Jerusalem".) Yet this is also in fulfillment of many prophecies given by God in the Old Testament.

This dream continued in the hearts and minds of most of the Jewish people worldwide since the prophesied exile and destruction of Roman times. And also for many Jews fleeing to escape the murderous persecutions worldwide, particularly those throughout Russia and Europe, the worst of the persecutions culminating in the Holocaust and ethnc cleansing of the Jews from African and Arab nations. All of the genocidal murder, persection and ethnic cleansing resulted in somehere around 1.5 million surviving Jews with nowhere to go and no nation where they could live (neither the U.K. nor the U.S. would accept them), and in the desire to find a place for themselves where they could be in a Jewish homeland of their own without persecution; also based on the belief that the Land of Zion was given to them by God, though the majority of Israelis today have little or no belief in the God of the Bible. Yet there is an awakening developing as more and more Jews in and outside the Land come to faith in Jesus of Nazareth as their Messiah.

Most of the growing number of orthodox and ultra-orthodox Jews in the Land (though still a small, but powerful minority) believe fervently in their covenant relationship with the God of Israel, and keep the Law and oral traditions as they understand them, much as did the Pharisees of old. Most believe that the commands and hand of God through Ezra, Nehemiah and the post-Babylonian prophets still apply to them today as the basis for their return to the Land, restoration of Jerusalem and rebuilding of the Temple. At the same time they persecute (and wish to do away with) the Jews who believe that Jesus is the Savior/Redeemer/Messiah. However, God raises up nations and peoples and brings them down; scatters them and restores them as he pleases. (Gen 6, Job 12:23; Dan. 4:34-37; Acts 17:6, etc.)

There are also two large Hasidic (ultra-orthodox) Jewish sects who are (and have been from centuries before) vehemently opposed to "Zionism" and the state of Israel on Talmudic and scriptural grounds, believing that the Jews are to wait for the Messiah to come (since they believe Jesus was not that Messiah) and restore his people to the Land; they are not take or possess the Land until he comes to bring about the restoration. They believe that the two millennia of Jewish suffering, including the Holocaust, and the current terrorism in Israel is "the divine will". "[The secular and orthodox Jews] have the audacity to think that they can prevent the Almighty [Shaddai] from repeating a Holocaust. This is heresy, Why are Jews at the 'Holocaust denial" conference?, BBC 12/13/06 They support some of the nation of Israel's enemies to various degrees for the overthrow of the "unlawful" Jewish state and government. (See Satmar & Neurei Karta Hasidim, Jewish religious groups that do not recognize Israel, Wikipedia) Their rejection of Messiah/Christ Jesus makes the ripe for deception and seduction by an anti-Christ just as they fell for this with Rabbi Akiva and Simon bar Kochba in the second century, in my opinion.

The bottom line is that the Land belongs to God alone and he gives it to whomever he pleases. He keeps his covenant given to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and his covenant of the Law given to Israel at Mt. Sinai (Exodus-Deuteronomy). This covenant included his promise to expel Israel from the Land if they continued in disobedience to him and his Law, which we believe is fulfilled in Christ Jesus, their Messiah; but also includes his promises to bring them back (as you will see in the scriptures below). The Jews, the nation and the city of Jerusalem (mostly secular/non-observant mixed with the religious) are there by God's doing, according to his promise, whether they know this or not. Religious Jerusalem is considered by the New Testament to be "in slavery with her children" until now (Gal. 4:21-31). All of God's word concerning the Jews and the nations (Gentiles), including the scriptures and prophecies below, are certainly being and will all be fulfilled by God, in order that all will know that he is Jehovah/Yahweh, the Covenant-keeping God of Israel, that those whom he has chosen will be his people and he their God, and that he is and will always be the King of Israel and the nations. (Ezek. 37:19-28 and many others)

Recent History of Modern Jerusalem

We need to return briefly to Jerusalem's history to bring us to a better understanding of it in modern times.

The remains of the city by the time of the Roman emperor Constantine in 301 A.D. was again called by its original name, Jerusalem. Most of what remained was rubble except for the area of Roman construction. Major Byzantine construction took place from 600 A.D. and continued under subsequent conquerors -- the Arabs, Crusaders and Ottoman Turks. The borders of the city consisted mostly of the area that made up Jerusalem before its destruction. The current walls around the city, presently known as the "Old City" (a very tiny area compared to modern Jerusalem), were mostly built by the Turkish ruler, Suleiman II in 1535-1538. The original hilltop village of Jerusalem conquered by David was left outside of those walls.

Jerusalem's population inside the walls waxed and waned over time. By the time of the reinstatement of Ottoman rule over Palestine in 1840, "many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem and Jews from Algiers and North Africa began to settle in the city in growing numbers.[89] In the 1840s and 1850s.... according to the Prussian consul, the population [of Jerusalem] in 1845 was 16,410, with 7,120 Jews, 5,000 Muslims, 3,390 Christians, 800 Turkish soldiers and 100 Europeans.[89] The volume of Christian pilgrims increased under the Ottomans, doubling the city's population around Easter time.[92]

"In the 1860s, new neighborhoods began [for the first time] to develop outside the confining Old City walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor sanitation inside the city. The Russian Compound and Mishkenot Sha'ananim were founded in 1860.[93] In 1867 an American Missionary reports an estimated population of Jerusalem of 'above' 15,000, with 4,000 to 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims. Every year there were 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Christian Pilgrims.[94]

Jerusalem under the British Mandate: "From 1922 to 1948 the total population of [Jerusalem] rose from 52,000 to 165,000 with two thirds of Jews and one-third of Arabs (Muslims and Christians).[96] The situation between Arabs and Jews in Palestine was not quiet. In Jerusalem, in particular, riots occurred in 1920 and in 1929. Under the British, new garden suburbs were built in the western and northern parts of the city[97][98]" From the Wikipedia article on Jerusalem as of 2010. All of the Jewish inhabitants of East Jerusalem and the Old City were attacked and driven out by Jordan's army in 1948 while most of the Arabs were driven out of West Jerusalem by the Israelis.

East Jerusalem and the Old City remained Jordanian territory until Israel took the city and its surroundings in the 1967 war. In the meantime, West Jerusalem expanded and developed at an enormous rate into a large metropolis of almost 1 million Jews and Arabs, dwarfing the tiny, closed-off original Old City on it's eastern border (which itself dwarfs the original City of David). All of Jerusalem since 1967 (except for most of the holy places and temple mount) has continued under Israel's sovereignty to this day (2013).

The orthodox Jews have completed plans to build a temple. The Muslim "Dome of the Rock" and its complexes are located where the Jewish temple used to stand, so no Jewish temple can be built. However, it has been discovered that the Dome rests South of the actual spot where the of the temple Holy of Holies stood. (If the Jews ever succeed in building a temple with accompanying sacrifices, it will be in complete conflict with the word of their own Messiah who claimed to be the true temple (Jn. 2:13-22) and the final sacrificial offering and atonement for the sins of his people (Isa. 52,53), thus opening the way for their turning to an anti-christ / false messiah instead.)

For a good timeline of the history of Jerusalem, see Timeline of Jerusalem on Wikipedia. This page is worth a scroll through to get a quick and easy overview of Jerusalem's history. The page was fairly accurate as of 2013. Another easy-to-follow timeline of the history of Jerusalem at (Use caution concerning other works on this site which do not hold to the authority and inspiration of the Bible.)

For a timeline of the history of Israel and modern Israel, see Timeline of Palestine [Israel] on Wikipedia and Timeline of [Modern] Israeli History.

The Old Testament and Jesus in the gospels speak of a day when two thirds of the city's inhabitants will be killed, yet that God will save a remnant during a time of tribulation and war such has never been seen and will never be seen again (see Zech. 13).

"Then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened. Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.... Then the sign of the Son of man in heaven shall appear, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory." (KJV) (Mat 24:21-31)

The following scriptures record the history and destiny of Jerusalem in Biblical prophecy.

The Israel of God

Regarding the salvation of the Jews in all nations we believe that ultimately, as the "time of the Gentiles" draws to a close, God will graft his elect remnant of the "natural branches" of Israel back in to their Messiah, Jesus, as the gospel goes out to them for their salvation (or tribulation) (Rom 1:16, 2:4-12) whom the "unnatural" gentile believers have been grafted into, and thus "all Israel shall be saved!" (Rom. 11)

The gospel of Jesus Christ is power of God unto salvation, to the Jew first and also to the Greek (Gentile) (Rom 1:16). The Jews have many advantages concerning God's covenant relationship with them:

What advantage then hath the Jew? or what profit is there of circumcision?
Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.
For what if some did not believe? shall their unbelief make the faith of God without effect?
God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged. (
Rom 3:1-4)

Paul was so burdened for Israel (of the flesh/the natural branches) that he could have wished himslef accursed from Christ forever if that would save them. (Similar to Moses' burden for them, "If you will not go with us, blot me out of your book", Exod. 32)

I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost,
That I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in my heart.
For I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ for my brethren [unbelieving Israel], my kinsmen according to the flesh:
Who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises;
Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.
Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel:
Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called.
That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.
Rom 9:1-8)

The Jewish remnant of natural Israel, even though enemies of the gospel while in unbelief, are yet loved by God "for the fathers' [Abraham's, Isaac's and Jacob's] sakes".

...that blindness in part is happened to Israel [the unbelieving Jews], until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.
And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, "There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:
For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins."
As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sakes: but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sakes.
For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance. (KJV)
Rom 11:25-29

(See Rom 2:26-29; 9:1:16; Eph 2:8-22.)

I apologize for the "roughness" of this. It was done rather hastily, but is a work in progress, and will hopefully improve over time. The web manager..

A Song of David, Ps 122
I was glad when they said unto me, Let us go into the house of the LORD.
Our feet shall stand within thy gates, O Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is builded as a city that is compact together:
Whither the tribes go up, the tribes of the LORD, unto the testimony of Israel, to give thanks unto the name of the LORD.
For there are set thrones of judgment, the thrones of the house of David.
Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: they shall prosper that love thee.
Peace be within thy walls, and prosperity within thy palaces.
For my brethren and companions' sakes, I will now say, Peace be within thee.
Because of the house of the LORD our God I will seek thy good.

Psalm 137:5-6
If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.
If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy

Click to see more photos of the original City of DavidDrawings and photos of early Jerusalem

The Scriptures on Jerusalem's Destiny

Notes on highlighting -- italics, bold and underline. Rather than merely quoting relevant Scripture verses concerning Jerusalem's and Israel's destiny, I have included surrounding text to try and keep the context of which the relevant scriptures are found. The more relevant a verse or passage is, the more highlighting I have done on that verse or passage. The weakest highlight I use is italics. The strongest highlight for relevancy to Jerusalem's and Israel's destiny is italics, bold, underlined. I have avoided commenting as much as possible to allow for the reader to come to his/her own conclusions. All scripture is from the KJV or NKJV unless otherwise noted.

Isaiah 4 (Approx 700 BC)
4:2 In that day shall the branch of the LORD be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel.
3 And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem:
4 When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.

5 And the LORD will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: for upon all the glory shall be a defence.

6 And there shall be a tabernacle for a shadow in the daytime from the heat, and for a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from rain.

Isaiah 11
11:1  And
there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch [Heb: Netzer] shall grow out of his roots:
2  And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD;
3  And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD: and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of his ears:
4  But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and
he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.
5  And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.
The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.
And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.
And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the [viper's] den.
They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea.
And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be glorious.
11  And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.
And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. The "islands of the sea" v11,12 usually referred to distant lands at that time, eg Is. 41:5; 49:1; 66:19).
The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim.
But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey them.
15  And the LORD shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make men go over dryshod.
And there shall be an highway for the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria; like as it was to Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt.

Isaiah 40
1 Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God.
Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned: for she hath received of the Lord's hand double for all her sins.
3 The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.
4 Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain:
5 And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.

6 The voice said, Cry. And he said, What shall I cry? All flesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field:
7 The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: because the spirit of the LORD bloweth upon it: surely the people is grass.
8 The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the word of our God shall stand for ever.
9 O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain; O Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings, lift up thy voice with strength; lift it up, be not afraid; say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God!
Behold, the Lord GOD will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him.
11 He shall feed his flock like a shepherd: he shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young

Isaiah 60
1 Arise, shine; For your light has come! And the glory of the Lord is risen upon you.
2 For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, And deep darkness the people; But the Lord will arise over you, And His glory will be seen upon you.
3 The Gentiles shall come to your light, And kings to the brightness of your rising.
4 "Lift up your eyes all around, and see: They all gather together, they come to you; Your sons shall come from afar, And your daughters shall be nursed at your side.
5 Then you shall see and become radiant, And your heart shall swell with joy; Because the abundance of the sea shall be turned to you, The wealth of the Gentiles shall come to you.
6 The multitude of camels shall cover your land, The dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; All those from Sheba shall come; They shall bring gold and incense, And they shall proclaim the praises of the Lord.
7 All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together to you, The rams of Nebaioth shall minister to you; They shall ascend with acceptance on My altar, And I will glorify the house of My glory.
8 "Who are these who fly like a cloud, And like doves to their roosts?
9 Surely the coastlands shall wait for Me; And the ships of Tarshish will come first, To bring your sons from afar, Their silver and their gold with them, To the name of the Lord your God, And to the Holy One of Israel, Because He has glorified you.
10 "The sons of foreigners shall build up your walls, And their kings shall minister to you; For in My wrath I struck you, But in My favor I have had mercy on you.
11 Therefore your gates shall be open continually; They shall not be shut day or night, That men may bring to you the wealth of the Gentiles, And their kings in procession.
12 For the nation and kingdom which will not serve you shall perish, And those nations shall be utterly ruined.

13 "The glory of Lebanon shall come to you, The cypress, the pine, and the box tree together, To beautify the place of My sanctuary; And I will make the place of My feet glorious.
14 Also the sons of those who afflicted you Shall come bowing to you, And all those who despised you shall fall prostrate at the soles of your feet; And they shall call you The City of the Lord, Zion of the Holy One of Israel.
15 "Whereas you have been forsaken and hated, So that no one went through you, I will make you an eternal excellence, A joy of many generations.
16 You shall drink the milk of the Gentiles, And milk the breast of kings; You shall know that I, the Lord, am your Savior And your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob
17 "Instead of bronze I will bring gold, Instead of iron I will bring silver, Instead of wood, bronze, And instead of stones, iron. I will also make your officers peace, And your magistrates righteousness.
18 Violence shall no longer be heard in your land, Neither wasting nor destruction within your borders; But you shall call your walls Salvation, And your gates Praise.
19 "The sun shall no longer be your light by day, Nor for brightness shall the moon give light to you; But the Lord will be to you an everlasting light, And your God your glory.
20 Your sun shall no longer go down, Nor shall your moon withdraw itself;
For the Lord will be your everlasting light, And the days of your mourning shall be ended.
Also your people shall all be righteous; They shall inherit the land forever, The branch of My planting, The work of My hands, That I may be glorified.

22 A little one shall become a thousand, And a small one a strong nation. I, the Lord, will hasten it in its time."

Isaiah 62
62:1 For Zion's sake will I not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth.
And the Gentiles shall see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory: and thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of the LORD shall name.
3 Thou shalt also be a crown of glory in the hand of the LORD, and a royal diadem in the hand of thy God.
Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken; neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate: but thou shalt be called Hephzibah [My delight], and thy land Beulah [married]: for the LORD delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married.
5 For as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons marry thee: and as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee.
I have set watchmen upon thy walls, O Jerusalem, which shall never hold their peace day nor night: ye that make mention of the LORD, keep not silence.
And give him no rest, till he establish, and till he make Jerusalem a praise in the earth.

8 The LORD hath sworn by his right hand, and by the arm of his strength, Surely I will no more give thy corn to be meat for thine enemies; and the sons of the stranger shall not drink thy wine, for the which thou hast laboured:
9 But they that have gathered it shall eat it and praise the LORD; and they that have brought it together shall drink it in the courts of my holiness.
10 Go through, go through the gates; prepare ye the way of the people; cast up, cast up the highway; gather out the stones; lift up a standard for the people.
11 Behold, the LORD hath proclaimed unto the end of the world, Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him.
12 And they shall call them, The holy people, The redeemed of the LORD: and thou shalt be called, Sought out, A city not forsaken.
As with many other similar prophetic passages, this may refer to earthly Jerusalem and to "Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven" (Rev. 21), "a city made without hands" (as in Heb. 11:10,16; 12:22-26; 13:12-14). God may be speaking here, through the prophet, of all believers, Jew and Gentile, in Jesus the Messiah. He may be speaking here of the "two Jerusalems" (earthly and heavenly) as one in much of the passage. Paul speaks of both in Gal 4:22-30. Jesus referred to Himself in John 6:38, as having come down from heaven to gather His elect. It was a physical as well as spiritual coming in fulfilment of prophecy. He came in a greater way in power when he sent the Holy Spirit. (See John 14,15, Acts 1,2.)

Isaiah 65
17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.
18 But be ye glad and rejoice for ever in that which I create: for, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy.
And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people: and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying.
There shall be no more there an infant of [a few] days, nor an old man that hath not filled his days: for the child shall die an hundred years old; but the sinner being an hundred years old shall be accursed.
And they shall build houses, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them.
They shall not build, and another inhabit; they shall not plant, and another eat: for as the days of a tree are the days of my people, and mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands.
They shall not labour in vain, nor bring forth for trouble; for they are the seed of the blessed of the LORD, and their offspring with them.
And it shall come to pass, that before they call, I will answer; and while they are yet speaking, I will hear.
25 The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock: and dust shall be the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the LORD.

Isaiah 66
Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all ye that love her: rejoice for joy with her, all ye that mourn for her:
That ye may suck, and be satisfied with the breasts of her consolations; that ye may milk out, and be delighted with the abundance of her glory.
For thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will extend peace to her like a river, and the glory of the Gentiles like a flowing stream: then shall ye suck, ye shall be borne upon her sides, and be dandled upon her knees.
13 As one whom his mother comforteth, so will I comfort you; and ye shall be comforted in Jerusalem.
14 And when ye see this, your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like an herb: and the hand of the LORD shall be known toward his servants, and his indignation toward his enemies.
15 For, behold, the LORD will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire.
16 For by fire and by his sword will the LORD plead with all flesh: and the slain of the LORD shall be many.
17 They that sanctify themselves, and purify themselves in the gardens behind one tree in the midst, eating swine's flesh, and the abomination, and the mouse, shall be consumed together, saith the LORD.
18 For I know their works and their thoughts: it shall come, that I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come, and see my glory.
19 And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal, and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles.
And they shall bring all your brethren for an offering unto the LORD out of all nations upon horses, and in chariots, and in litters, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the LORD, as the children of Israel bring an offering in a clean vessel into the house of the LORD.
And I will also take of them for priests and for Levites, saith the LORD.
For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed and your name remain.
And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.
24 And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh.

Jeremiah (About 627-582 BC. Before, during, and after the first destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians around 586 BC)
3:11 And the LORD said unto me, The backsliding Israel hath justified herself more than treacherous Judah.
12 Go and proclaim these words toward the north, and say, Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith the LORD; and I will not cause mine anger to fall upon you: for I am merciful, saith the LORD, and I will not keep anger for ever.
13 Only acknowledge thine iniquity, that thou hast transgressed against the LORD thy God, and hast scattered thy ways to the strangers under every green tree, and ye have not obeyed my voice, saith the LORD.
14 Turn, O backsliding children, saith the LORD; for I am married unto you: and I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you to Zion:
15 And I will give you pastors according to mine heart, which shall feed you with knowledge and understanding.
16 And it shall come to pass, when ye be multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, saith the LORD, they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the LORD: neither shall it come to mind: neither shall they remember it; neither shall they visit it; neither shall that be done any more.
At that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of the LORD; and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the LORD, to Jerusalem: neither shall they walk any more after the imagination of their evil heart.
In those days the house of Judah shall walk with the house of Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north to the land that I have given for an inheritance unto your fathers.

19:1  Thus saith the LORD, Go and get a potter's earthen bottle, and take of the ancients of the people, and of the ancients of the priests;
2  And go forth unto the valley of the son of Hinnom, which is by the entry of the east gate, and proclaim there the words that I shall tell thee,
3  And say,
Hear ye the word of the LORD, O kings of Judah, and inhabitants of Jerusalem; Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will bring evil upon this place, the which whosoever heareth, his ears shall tingle.

4  Because they have forsaken me, and have estranged this place, and have burned incense in it unto other gods, whom neither they nor their fathers have known, nor the kings of Judah, and have filled this place with the blood of innocents;
5  They have built also the high places of Baal, to burn their sons with fire for burnt offerings unto Baal, which I commanded not, nor spake it, neither came it into my mind:
6  Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that this place shall no more be called Tophet, nor The valley of the son of Hinnom, but The valley of slaughter.

7  And I will make void the counsel of Judah and Jerusalem in this place; and I will cause them to fall by the sword before their enemies, and by the hands of them that seek their lives: and their carcases will I give to be meat for the fowls of the heaven, and for the beasts of the earth.
8  And I will make this city desolate, and an hissing; every one that passeth thereby shall be astonished and hiss because of all the plagues thereof.
9  And I will cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters, and they shall eat every one the flesh of his friend in the siege and straitness, wherewith their enemies, and they that seek their lives, shall straiten [distress] them.

10  Then shalt thou break the bottle in the sight of the men that go with thee.
11  And shalt say unto them, Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Even so will
I break this people and this city, as one breaketh a potter's vessel, that cannot be made whole* again: and they shall bury them in Tophet, till there be no place to bury. *Rapha': To heal, make healthful (as opposed to shalom, "whole" or "complete".) However, see 30:17 and others.
12  Thus will I do unto this place, saith the LORD, and to the inhabitants thereof, and even make this city as Tophet:

13  And the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, shall be defiled as the place of Tophet, because of all the houses upon whose roofs they have burned incense unto all the host of heaven, and have poured out drink offerings unto other gods.
14  Then came Jeremiah from Tophet, whither the LORD had sent him to prophesy; and he stood in the court of the LORD'S house; and said to all the people,
15  Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will bring upon this city and upon all her towns all the evil that I have pronounced against it, because they have hardened their necks, that they might not hear my words.

Jeremiah 23
5 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.
In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.
7 Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that they shall no more say, The LORD liveth, which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt;
But, The LORD liveth, which brought up and which led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north country, and from all countries whither I had driven them; and they shall dwell in their own land.

Jeremiah 30
30:1 The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying,
2 Thus speaketh the LORD God of Israel, saying, Write thee all the words that I have spoken unto thee in a book.
3 For, lo, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will bring again the captivity of my people Israel and Judah, saith the LORD: and I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it.
4 And these are the words that the LORD spake concerning Israel and concerning Judah.
5 For thus saith the LORD; We have heard a voice of trembling, of fear, and not of peace.
6 Ask ye now, and see whether a man doth travail with child? wherefore do I see every man with his hands on his loins, as a woman in travail, and all faces are turned into paleness?
7 Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob's trouble; but he shall be saved out of it.
8 For it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD of hosts, that I will break his yoke from off thy neck, and will burst thy bonds, and strangers shall no more serve themselves of him:
But they shall serve the LORD their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them.

10 Therefore fear thou not, O my servant Jacob, saith the LORD; neither be dismayed, O Israel: for, lo, I will save thee from afar, and thy seed from the land of their captivity; and Jacob shall return, and shall be in rest, and be quiet, and none shall make him afraid.
11 For I am with thee, saith the LORD, to save thee: though I make a full end of all nations whither I have scattered thee, yet will I not make a full end of thee: but I will correct thee in measure, and will not leave thee altogether unpunished.
12 For thus saith the LORD, Thy bruise is incurable, and thy wound is grievous.
13 There is none to plead thy cause, that thou mayest be bound up: thou hast no healing medicines.
14 All thy lovers have forgotten thee; they seek thee not; for I have wounded thee with the wound of an enemy, with the chastisement of a cruel one, for the multitude of thine iniquity; because thy sins were increased.

15 Why criest thou for thine affliction? thy sorrow is incurable for the multitude of thine iniquity: because thy sins were increased, I have done these things unto thee.
16 Therefore all they that devour thee shall be devoured; and all thine adversaries, every one of them, shall go into captivity; and they that spoil thee shall be a spoil, and all that prey upon thee will I give for a prey.
17 For I will restore health unto thee, and I will heal thee of thy wounds, saith the LORD; because they called thee an Outcast, saying, This is Zion, whom no man seeketh after.
'Behold, I will restore the fortunes of the tents of Jacob; And have compassion on his dwelling places; And the city will be rebuilt on its ruin, And the palace will stand on its rightful place.(NASB)
19 And out of them shall proceed thanksgiving and the voice of them that make merry: and I will multiply them, and they shall not be few; I will also glorify them, and they shall not be small.
20 Their children also shall be as aforetime, and their congregation shall be established before me, and I will punish all that oppress them.
21 And their nobles shall be of themselves, and their governor shall proceed from the midst of them; and I will cause him to draw near, and he shall approach unto me: for who is this that engaged his heart to approach unto me? saith the LORD.
And ye shall be my people, and I will be your God.
23 Behold, the whirlwind of the LORD goeth forth with fury, a continuing whirlwind: it shall fall with pain upon the head of the wicked.
24 The fierce anger of the LORD shall not return, until he have done it, and until he have performed the intents of his heart: in the latter days ye shall consider it.

Ezekiel (Approx 600 BC)
11:15 Son of man, thy brethren, even thy brethren, the men of thy kindred, and all the house of Israel wholly, are they unto whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, Get you far from the LORD: unto us is this land given in possession.
16 Therefore say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Although I have cast them far off among the heathen, and although I have scattered them among the countries, yet will I be to them as a little sanctuary in the countries where they shall come.
17 Therefore say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; I will even gather you from the people, and assemble you out of the countries where ye have been scattered, and I will give you the land of Israel.
18 And they shall come thither, and they shall take away all the detestable things thereof and all the abominations thereof from thence.
19 And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh:
20 That they may walk in my statutes, and keep mine ordinances, and do them: and they shall be my people, and I will be their God.
21 But as for them whose heart walketh after the heart of their detestable things and their abominations, I will recompense their way upon their own heads, saith the Lord GOD.

(See Ezekiel 36-39 for the entire prophecy)

Jerusalem a hill/mount among hills in the mountains of Central Israel.
36:1 Also, thou son of man, prophesy unto the mountains of Israel, and say, Ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the LORD:
2 Thus saith the Lord GOD; Because the enemy hath said against you, Aha, even the ancient high places are ours in possession:
3 Therefore prophesy and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Because they have made you desolate, and swallowed you up on every side, that ye might be a possession unto the residue of the heathen, and ye are taken up in the lips of talkers, and are an infamy of the people:
Therefore, ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord GOD; Thus saith the Lord GOD to the mountains, and to the hills, to the rivers, and to the valleys, to the desolate waste [places], and to the cities that are forsaken, which became a prey and derision to the residue of the heathen that are round about;

36:6 Prophesy therefore concerning the land of Israel, and say unto the mountains, and to the hills, to the rivers, and to the valleys, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I have spoken in my jealousy and in my fury, because ye have borne the shame of the heathen:
7 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; I have lifted up mine hand, Surely the heathen that are about you, they shall bear their shame.
But ye, O mountains of Israel, ye shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to my people of Israel; for they are at hand to come.
For, behold, I am for you, and I will turn unto you, and ye shall be tilled and sown:
And I will multiply men upon you, all the house of Israel, even all of it: and the cities shall be inhabited, and the waste [places] shall be builded:
And I will multiply upon you man and beast; and they shall increase and bring fruit: and I will settle you after your old estates, and will do better unto you than at your beginnings: and ye shall know that I am the LORD.
Yea, I will cause men to walk upon you, even my people Israel; and they shall possess thee, and thou shalt be their inheritance, and thou shalt no more henceforth bereave them of men.
13 Thus saith the Lord GOD; Because they say unto you, Thou land devourest up men, and hast bereaved thy nations;
14 Therefore thou shalt devour men no more, neither bereave thy nations any more, saith the Lord GOD.
15 Neither will I cause men to hear in thee the shame of the heathen any more, neither shalt thou bear the reproach of the people any more, neither shalt thou cause thy nations to fall any more, saith the Lord GOD.
16 Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,
17 Son of man, when the house of Israel dwelt in their own land, they defiled it by their own way and by their doings: their way was before me as the uncleanness of a removed woman.
18 Wherefore I poured my fury upon them for the blood that they had shed upon the land, and for their idols wherewith they had polluted it:
19 And I scattered them among the heathen, and they were dispersed through the countries: according to their way and according to their doings I judged them.
20 And when they entered unto the heathen, whither they went, they profaned my holy name, when they said to them, These are the people of the LORD, and are gone forth out of his land.
21 But I had pity for mine holy name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the heathen, whither they went.
Therefore say unto the house of Israel, Thus saith the Lord GOD; I do not this for your sakes, O house of Israel, but for mine holy name's sake, which ye have profaned among the heathen, whither ye went.
23 And I will sanctify my great name, which was profaned among the heathen, which ye have profaned in the midst of them; and the heathen shall know that I am the LORD, saith the Lord GOD, when I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes.

For I will take you from among the heathen, and gather you out of all countries, and will bring you into your own land.
Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you.
A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh.
And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.
And ye shall dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers; and ye shall be my people, and I will be your God.
29 I will also save you from all your uncleannesses: and I will call for the corn, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you.
30 And I will multiply the fruit of the tree, and the increase of the field, that ye shall receive no more reproach of famine among the heathen.
31 Then shall ye remember your own evil ways, and your doings that were not good, and shall loathe yourselves in your own sight for your iniquities and for your abominations.
32 Not for your sakes do I this, saith the Lord GOD, be it known unto you: be ashamed and confounded for your own ways, O house of Israel.
33 Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day that I shall have cleansed you from all your iniquities I will also cause you to dwell in the cities, and the waste [places] shall be builded.
34 And the desolate land shall be tilled, whereas it lay desolate in the sight of all that passed by.

35 And they shall say, This land that was desolate is become like the garden of Eden; and the waste and desolate and ruined cities are become fenced, and are inhabited.
Then the heathen that are left round about you shall know that I the LORD build the ruined places, and plant that that was desolate: I the LORD have spoken it, and I will do it.
Thus saith the Lord GOD; I will yet for this be inquired of by the house of Israel, to do it for them; I will increase them with men like a flock.
As the holy flock, as the flock of Jerusalem in her solemn feasts; so shall the waste cities be filled with flocks of men: and they shall know that I am the LORD.

37:19 Say unto them,
Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel his [companions], and will put them with him, even with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they shall be one in mine hand.
20 And the sticks whereon thou writest shall be in thine hand before their eyes.
21 And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD;
Behold, I will take the children of Israel from among the heathen, whither they be gone, and will gather them on every side, and bring them into their own land:
And I will make them one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king to them all: and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all:
23 Neither shall they defile themselves any more with their idols, nor with their detestable things, nor with any of their transgressions:
but I will save them out of all their dwellingplaces, wherein they have sinned, and will cleanse them: so shall they be my people, and I will be their God.
And David my servant shall be king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd: they shall also walk in my judgments, and observe my statutes, and do them.
And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, even they, and their children, and their children's children for ever: and my servant David shall be their prince for ever.
Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be an everlasting covenant with them: and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore.
27 My tabernacle also shall be with them: yea, I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
28 And the heathen shall know that I the LORD do sanctify Israel, when my sanctuary shall be in the midst of them for evermore

38:1 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,
Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him,
And say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal:

8 After many days thou shalt be visited: in the latter years thou shalt come into the land that is brought back from the sword, and is gathered out of many people, against the mountains of Israel, which have been always waste: but it is brought forth out of the nations, and they shall dwell safely all of them.
9 Thou shalt ascend and come like a storm, thou shalt be like a cloud to cover the land, thou, and all thy bands, and many people with thee.

39:1 Therefore, thou son of man, prophesy against Gog, and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal:
2 And I will turn thee back, and leave but the sixth part of thee, and will cause thee to come up from the north parts, and will bring thee upon the mountains of Israel
3 And I will smite thy bow out of thy left hand, and will cause thine arrows to fall out of thy right hand.
Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel, thou, and all thy bands, and the people that is with thee:
I will give thee unto the ravenous birds of every sort, and to the beasts of the field to be devoured.
5 Thou shalt fall upon the open field: for I have spoken it, saith the Lord GOD.
6 And I will send a fire on Magog, and among them that dwell carelessly in the isles: and they shall know that I am the LORD.
7 So will I make my holy name known in the midst of my people Israel; and I will not let them pollute my holy name any more: and the heathen shall know that I am the LORD, the Holy One in Israel.

Revelation of John the apostle (90 AD) (See Ezekiel 36-39)
20:7 And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison,
8 And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth,
Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.
And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.

Joel (Date uncertain. Theories range from 835 - 350 BC.)
Fear not, O land; be glad and rejoice: for the LORD will do great things.
22 Be not afraid, ye beasts of the field: for the pastures of the wilderness do spring, for the tree beareth her fruit, the fig tree and the vine do yield their strength.
23 Be glad then, ye children of Zion, and rejoice in the LORD your God: for he hath given you the former rain moderately, and he will cause to come down for you the rain, the former rain, and the latter rain in the first month.
24 And the floors shall be full of wheat, and the vats shall overflow with wine and oil.
25 And I will restore to you the years that the locust hath eaten, the cankerworm, and the caterpillar, and the palmerworm, my great army which I sent among you.
26 And ye shall eat in plenty, and be satisfied, and praise the name of the LORD your God, that hath dealt wondrously with you: and my people shall never be ashamed.
27 And ye shall know that I am in the midst of Israel, and that I am the LORD your God, and none else: and my people shall never be ashamed.
28 And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions:
29 And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit.
30 And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke.
31 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come.
32 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered: for in mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as the LORD hath said, and in the remnant whom the LORD shall call.

3:1 For, behold, in those days, and in that time, when I shall bring again the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem,
I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with them there for my people and for my heritage Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations, and parted my land.

3 And they have cast lots for my people; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink.
4 Yea, and what have ye to do with me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all the coasts of Palestine? will ye render me a recompense? and if ye recompense me, swiftly and speedily will I return your recompense upon your own head;
5 Because ye have taken my silver and my gold, and have carried into your temples my goodly pleasant things:
6 The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.
Behold, I will raise them out of the place whither ye have sold them, and will return your recompense upon your own head:

8 And I will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of the children of Judah, and they shall sell them to the Sabeans, to a people far off: for the LORD hath spoken it.
9 Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up:
10 Beat your plowshares into swords, and your pruninghooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong.
11 Assemble yourselves, and come, all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about: thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O LORD.
12 Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat: for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about.
13 Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the vats overflow; for their wickedness is great.
14 Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.
15 The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining.
16 The LORD also shall roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens and the earth shall shake: but the LORD will be the hope of his people, and the strength of the children of Israel.
So shall ye know that I am the LORD your God dwelling in Zion, my holy mountain: then shall Jerusalem be holy, and there shall no strangers pass through her any more.
And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall come forth of the house of the LORD, and shall water the valley of Shittim.

19 Egypt shall be a desolation, and Edom shall be a desolate wilderness, for the violence against the children of Judah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land.
20 But Judah shall dwell for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation.
For I will cleanse their blood that I have not cleansed: for the LORD dwelleth in Zion.

9:8 Behold, the eyes of the Lord GOD are upon the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from off the face of the earth; saving that I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob, saith the LORD.
9 For, lo, I will command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth.
10 All the sinners of my people shall die by the sword, which say, The evil shall not overtake nor prevent us.
11 In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old:
12 That they may possess the remnant of Edom, and of all the heathen, which are called by my name, saith the LORD that doeth this.
13 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that the plowman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him that soweth seed; and the mountains shall drop sweet wine, and all the hills shall melt.
And I will bring again the captivity of my people of Israel, and they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; they shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them.
And I will plant them upon their land, and they shall no more be pulled up out of their land which I have given them, saith the LORD thy God.

Also Zeph. 3:12-20

Many believe (including myself) that the destiny of present day Jerusalem is penned in the prophecies of Zechariah.

Zechariah (Approx. 500 BC) After Babylonian destruction, at the beginning of the rebuilding of the Temple and the city. God's prophetic word for the city.

Zech. 2
2:1 I lifted up mine eyes again, and looked, and behold a man with a measuring line in his hand.
2 Then said I, Whither goest thou? And he said unto me, To measure Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth thereof, and what is the length thereof.
3 And, behold, the angel that talked with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him,
4 And said unto him, Run, speak to this young man, saying,
Jerusalem shall be inhabited as towns without walls for the multitude of men and cattle therein:
For I, saith the LORD, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and will be the glory in the midst of her.
6 Ho, ho, come forth, and flee from the land of the north, saith the LORD: for I have spread you abroad as the four winds of the heaven, saith the LORD.
7 Deliver thyself [Escape, NKJV], O Zion, that dwellest with the daughter of Babylon.
8 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; After the glory hath he sent me unto the nations which spoiled you:
for he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye.
9 For, behold, I will shake mine hand upon them, and they shall be a spoil to their servants: and ye shall know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me.
Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the LORD.
And many nations shall be joined to the LORD in that day, and shall be my people: and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and thou shalt know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto thee.
And the LORD shall inherit Judah his portion in the holy land, and shall choose Jerusalem again.

13 Be silent, O all flesh, before the LORD: for he is raised up out of his holy habitation.

Zech. 12
The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, saith the LORD, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him.
Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and against Jerusalem.
And in that day will I make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people: all that burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, though all the people of the earth be gathered together against it.
4  In that day, saith the LORD, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness: and I will open mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the people with blindness.
And the governors of Judah shall say in their heart, The inhabitants of Jerusalem shall be my strength in the LORD of hosts their God.
6  In that day will I make the governors of Judah like an hearth of fire among the wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and they shall devour all the people round about, on the right hand and on the left: and Jerusalem shall be inhabited again in her own place, even in Jerusalem.
The LORD also shall save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David and the glory of the inhabitants of Jerusalem do not magnify themselves against Judah.
In that day shall the LORD defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David shall be as God, as the angel of the LORD before them.

And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem.
10  And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.
11  In that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon.
12  And the land shall mourn, every family apart; the family of the house of David apart, and their wives apart; the family of the house of Nathan apart, and their wives apart.

Zech. 13
13:8 And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith the LORD, two parts therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein.
9 And I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried: they shall call on my name, and I will hear them: I will say, It is my people: and they shall say, The LORD is my God.

Zech. 14
14:1  Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, and thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee.
For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue [or remnant, NKJV] of the people shall not be cut off from the city.
Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle.

In that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which is in front of Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives will be split in its middle from east to west by a very large valley, so that half of the mountain will move toward the north and the other half toward the south. [NASB]
5  And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah:
and the LORD my God shall come, and all the saints* with thee. *Lit. holy ones cf 1 Thess. 4:13-5:11; 2 Thess. 1:7-10

And it shall come to pass in that day, that the light shall not be, nor dark:
But it shall be one day which shall be known to the LORD, not day, nor night: but it shall come to pass, that at evening time it shall be light.
And it shall be in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the former sea, and half of them toward the hinder sea: in summer and in winter shall it be.
And the LORD shall be king over all the earth: in that day there shall be one LORD and his name one. cf Rev. 21:22-21:1

10  All the land shall be turned as a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem: and it shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place, from Benjamin's gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and from the tower of Hananeel unto the king's winepresses.
And men shall dwell in it, and there shall be no more utter destruction; but Jerusalem shall be safely inhabited.
And this shall be the plague wherewith the LORD will smite all the people that have fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet, and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongue shall consume away in their mouth.
13  And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great tumult from the LORD shall be among them; and they shall lay hold every one on the hand of his neighbour, and his hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour.
And Judah also shall fight at Jerusalem; and the wealth of all the heathen round about shall be gathered together, gold, and silver, and apparel, in great abundance.
15  And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of all the beasts that shall be in these tents, as this plague.
And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles.

17  And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain.
18  And if the family of Egypt go not up, and come not, that have no rain; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the heathen that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.
This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all nations that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.
20  In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD; and the pots in the LORD'S house shall be like the bowls before the altar.
Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness unto the LORD of hosts: and all they that sacrifice shall come and take of them, and seethe therein: and in that day there shall be no more the Canaanite in the house of the LORD of hosts.

Here are some of the New Testament scriptures regarding Jerusalem and Jesus' return.

Matthew 23 (From Jesus about 30 AD)

37 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!
Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.
39 For I say unto you [Jerusalem v. 37], Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

Matthew 24
1  And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to show him the buildings of the temple.
2  And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
3  And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying,
Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world*? Lit "age". Even after His resurrection, they were still wanting to know, "Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?" (Acts 1:6) It was not for them "to know the the times or epochs which the Father has put in His own power." cf Mat 23:31-39

4  And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you.
5  For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.
6  And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.
7  For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.
8  All these are the beginning of sorrows.
9  Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake.
10  And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another.
11  And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.
12  And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.
13  But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.
And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.
When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by ' the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:) cf 2 Thess 2:3,4

Daniel 11:31 (Approx. 600 BC)

31  And arms shall stand on [the king's] part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength [the holy place in the Temple], and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.

(See the passage from Daniel for the full context.)

Matthew 24 (Continued)
16  Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains:
17  Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house:
18  Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes.
19  And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days!
20  But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day:
For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.
And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.
23  Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not.
For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.
25  Behold, I have told you before.
26  Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not. cf
2 Thess. 2, Rev 13

27  For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
28  For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together.
29  Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:
30  And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn,
and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.
cf Zech 12:9-14:9; Dan 7:9-14; Rev 1:7
31  And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
32  Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh:
33  So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors.
34  Verily I say unto you,
This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.
Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.
But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.

37  But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
38  For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark,
39  And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
40  Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
41  Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.
43  But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up.
Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh.

Matthew 25:31-46
31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: cf (possibly / or partial fulfillment) Zech 14:9-16
And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats:

Luke 13 (Spoken by Jesus about 30 AD)
34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings, and ye would not!
Behold, your house is left unto you desolate: and verily I say unto you,
Ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

Luke 21

24 And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

25 And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring;
26 Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken.
27 And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.
28 And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh. cf Zech 14:4-9

29 And he spake to them a parable; Behold the fig tree, and all the trees;
30 When they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves that summer is now nigh at hand.
31 So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand.
32 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all be fulfilled.

33 Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away.

34 And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares.
35 For as a snare shall it come on all them that dwell on the face of the whole earth.
36 Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.

Daniel 11 (Approx. 600 BC)
31  And arms shall stand on [the king's] part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate. [This event, referred to by Jesus as "the abomination of desolation" (Mat. 24:15), is accomplished by a king who is exceedingly evil and opposed to the one true God of Israel. Around 200 BC Antiochus Epiphanes of the Seleucid (Syrian) empire fulfilled this prophecy. See 1 & 2 Maccabees, and Josephus. Yet Jesus quotes this passage referring to a future fulfillment. This king is usually considered to be the antichrist of the last days described throughout the New Testament.]
32  And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.
33  And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.
34  Now when they shall fall, they shall be [helped] with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.
35  And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.

36  And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
37  Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers*, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
[*or gods of his fathers]
38  But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
39  Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.

40  And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.
He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.
42  He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
43  But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.
44  But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to take away many.
And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him. cf Mat. 24:15, 2 Thess. 2.

Acts 1 (About 30 AD)
6 When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?
And he said unto them, It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power.
8 But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.
9 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight.
10 And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel;
Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.
Then returned they unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a sabbath day's journey.
[He ascended from Mount Olivet (or Bethany? Luke 24:50-52), and in like manner He will return in "power and great glory." (See Zech. 14:4-9)]

The concept of double, multiple or increasing fulfullment of prophetic scripture in the old and new testaments is important in understanding the prophetic scriptures concerning Jerusalem and Messiah's second and final return in glory and power. Many of the scriptures regarding the destiny of Jerusalem and Christ's return were fulfilled with the Maccabean and Jewish revolts and subsequent Roman invasions and destruction of Israel's cities and Jerusalem between 66 to 74 A.D. and 131 to 136 A.D. Many more have yet to be fulfilled completely and/or to be fulfilled yet for the first time.

Here are three examples of "double fulfillment" of prophetic scripture in the Old Testament regarding Messiah's first coming, not recognized at the time they were given or until the time of Jesus Christ as referring to his first coming. These were all fulfilled at or around the time they were given. They were ultimately and finally fulfilled in the first coming of Christ.
Ps. 22; Is. 7:14 (7:1-25) & Is 8:3-8; Jer. 31:15 (31:15-26).

Note that there is a growing number of Jewish and Gentile believers in Jesus in Jerusalem, in the land of Israel and among the nations such has not been seen since the days of Acts. The yet unbelieving Jews are referred to in the NT in various ways such as "the Jews," "Israelites," "the seed of Abraham," "the circumcision," the "natural branches," "Jews by nature" etc. I (the web manager) believe that their restoration and God's "awakening" of them has great significance in these last days; especially relating to the purposes and plans of God regarding them and the soon return of Christ. I believe it is highly significant that God is restoring the remnant of "the house of Israel" to their Messiah, that he is fufilling the remaining promises and prophecies regarding Messiah Jesus and his coming, the Jewish people and Jerusalem. All is leading to Jesus, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, and his visible return in power and glory to judge his enemies, save his people, and rule in Jerusalem over the nations and over the whole earth according to the scriptures.

Revelation 11 (About 90 AD)
11:1 And there was given me a reed like unto a rod: and the angel stood, saying, Rise, and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them that worship therein.
2 But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles:
and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months.
3 And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.
4 These are the two olive trees, and the two oil lamps standing before the God of the earth.
5 And if any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies: and if any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed.
6 These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophecy: and have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will.
7 And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them.
And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified.

9 And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves.
10 And they that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt on the earth.
11 And after three days and an half the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them.
12 And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them.
13 And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven.
14 The second woe is past; and, behold, the third woe cometh quickly.
15 And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.
16 And the four and twenty elders, which sat before God on their seats, fell upon their faces, and worshipped God,
17 Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned.
18 And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.
19 And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

Revelation 20 (About 90 AD)
7 And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison,
8 And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.
And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.
10 And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.

Revelation 21,22
21:1 And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.
2 And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.
And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.

4 And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.
5 And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.
6 And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.
7 He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son.
8 But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.
9 And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife.
10 And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God,
Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal;
12 And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel:
13 On the east three gates; on the north three gates; on the south three gates; and on the west three gates.
14 And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
15 And he that talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city, and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof.
16 And the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal.
17 And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel.
18 And the building of the wall of it was of jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass.
19 And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;
20 The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolyte; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst.
21 And the twelve gates were twelve pearls: every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass.
And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it.
23 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof
24 And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it.
25 And the gates of it shall not be shut at all by day: for there shall be no night there.
26 And they shall bring the glory and honour of the nations into it.
27 And there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a lie: but they which are written in the Lamb's book of life

22:1 And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.
2 In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.
3 And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him:
4 And they shall see his face; and his name shall be in their foreheads.
5 And there shall be no night there; and they need no lamp, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever
6 And he said unto me, These sayings are faithful and true: and the Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to show unto his servants the things which must shortly be done.
7 Behold, I come quickly: blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of the prophecy of this book.
8 And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel which showed me these things.
9 Then saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep the sayings of this book: worship God.
10 And he saith unto me, Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book: for the time is at hand.
11 He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still.
12 And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.
13 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.
14 Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.
15 For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie.
16 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.
And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.
18 For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book:
19 And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.
20 He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus.
21 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

See also

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